Sunday, June 25, 2017

The Thalamus Uses a 10-Step Method to Learn Sensory Patterns. How Do I know This?

Abstract

I got a few extraordinary claims to make about the thalamus. I say "extraordinary" because they describe certain functional aspects of it that are unknown to neurobiologists. I know, for examples, that it contains a 10-level sensory pattern hierarchy and that it uses a 10-step method to learn new patterns. I know that it needs timing signals from the hippocampus and that it needs to be pruned during sleep. I know this, not because I learned it from the scientific literature (most neurobiologists believe the thalamus is mostly a relay center for sensory signals on their way to the cerebral cortex), but because I found out about it from a couple of very old occult books known as Revelation and Zechariah. Years ago, I discovered that the books of Revelation and Zechariah contained revolutionary scientific knowledge about the brain and consciousness written in a metaphorical language intended to hide their true meaning. That is, until now.

The First and the Last: Sensory Signals

Chapters 2-3 of the book of Revelation contain seven metaphorical letters or messages to seven symbolic Churches in Asia. Each message symbolizes a different functional aspect of the brain. I have identified the message to the Church of Smyrna (Rev 2: 8-11) as pertaining to sensory processing in the thalamus. The message begins as follows (emphasis added) :
Rev 2:8. And to the angel of the church in Smyrna write, These things says the First and the Last, who was dead, and came to life:
The "first and the last" is a powerful metaphor. It means that only input signals that are emitted at the onset or offset of a stimulus are used by the thalamus. For example, the waveform in the illustration below represents a varying stimulus such as audio volume or light intensity. The horizontal line represents a given amplitude level. A and B are onset and offset sensors for that amplitude. Each fires a single pulse when the stimulus crosses their amplitude level in a specific direction: up or down.


The text makes a distinction between "poor" sensors (onset and offset) and "rich" sensors. Rich sensors fire continually as long as the stimulus is above a certain level. The thalamus uses only poor signals as revealed symbolically in verse 9:
Rev 2:9. I know your works, tribulation, and poverty (but you are rich); and I know the blasphemy of those who say they are Jews and are not, but are a synagogue of Satan.
This is a different topic but suffice it to say that rich signals are sent to the cerebellum which is symbolized by those who say they are Jews and are not. The cerebellum is described in the message to the gentile church of Laodicea.

Ten Days of Tribulation, Death and Resurrection: Pattern Learning

Pattern learning in the thalamus is fully unsupervised. That is to say, unlike deep learning networks, it does not require that the patterns be labeled during learning. It discovers the patterns automatically from the sensory data. It consists of searching for discrete signals that frequently arrive concurrently. Let us take another look at verse 8:
Rev 2:8. And to the angel of the church in Smyrna write, These things says the First and the Last, who was dead, and came to life:
The phrase "who was dead, and came to life" is important because it explains an essential aspect of pattern learning: if a sensory input fails a test, it is immediately disconnected (it dies) but is quickly reconnected (resurrected) elsewhere. The actual test is explained in verse 10:
Rev 2:10. Do not fear any of those things which you are about to suffer. Indeed, the devil is about to throw some of you into prison, that you may be tested, and you will have tribulation ten days. Be faithful until death, and I will give you the crown of life.
The most important metaphor in this verse is the word "days". My understanding is that a day symbolizes the shortest working interval which is approximately 10 milliseconds in the brain. The only test one can conduct in a single interval (or day) is a concurrency test. The phrase "you will have tribulation ten days" simply means that input sensory connections are tested 10 times in a row for concurrence. If they fail the test even once, they are disconnected. If they pass all the 10 steps, the connections become permanent.

The question that arises is this: why 10 steps? Why not 2 or 20? Keep in mind that this is a search for patterns that occur often enough to be considered above mere random noise. The choice of 10 steps is a compromise. Using less than 10 would run the risk of learning useless noise while having more than 10 would result in a slow learning process.

Lands, Sprouts and Olive Trees: Pattern and Sequence Hierarchies

According to my interpretation of the book of Zechariah (chapters 3-6), there are two hierarchies (the two olive trees) in each hemisphere of the brain, one for patterns (the thalamus) and one for sequences (the cerebral cortex). The pattern hierarchy has 10 levels whereas the sequence hierarchy has 20. This is symbolized by the 10 by 20 cubits flying scroll metaphor in chapter 5. Every pattern detector at every level of the thalamic hierarchy sends its signals to the bottom or entry level of the sequence hierarchy. However, the pattern inputs to sequence memory are not connected willy-nilly. The entry level of the cerebral cortex is organized into different areas (lands) assigned to inputs from different sensory modalities and pattern levels.

One of my more surprising findings is that actual pattern recognition does not occur in the pattern hierarchy, as one would be inclined to believe, but in the sequence hierarchy (not shown). When a sequence detector recognizes a sequence, it immediately sends a recognition signal down the sequence hierarchy, all the way down to the pattern detectors in the thalamus. This is accomplished by a mechanism that the book of Zechariah metaphorically refers to as the "branch" or the "sprout", "sprout" being the actual literal meaning in Hebrew. Indeed, feedback pathways are observed in both the cerebral cortex and the thalamus.

The House of the Thief: Pattern Pruning

I could write an entire book on Zechariah alone. I'm forced to leave a lot of good stuff out because one or two blog articles could never do it justice. There is one aspect of pattern learning that I want to mention here. It has to do with pattern pruning. The pattern hierarchy must be pruned periodically to get rid of redundant connections. A redundancy is a closed loop in the hierarchy.


Looking at the diagram above, we see a closed loop formed by sensor D and the pattern neurons A, B and C. This is forbidden because signals emitted by sensor D arrive at B via two pathways, D-A-B and D-C-B. One or the other must be eliminated. It does not matter which. Note that eliminating a pathway is not enough to prevent the closed loop from forming again. In the diagram above, either pattern neuron A or C (whichever is younger) should be barred permanently. That is to say, an offending pattern neuron should not be destroyed but simply forbidden from forming output connections. This prevents the learning process from repeating the same mistake. In the brain, pattern pruning is done during REM sleep because it would interfere with sensory perception during waking hours. In a computer program, it can be done instantly even during learning.

The book of Zechariah uses the flying scroll metaphor (chapter 5) to describe pruning. In fact, it mentions two types of pruning: pattern pruning (thieves) and sequence pruning (liars). This is shown in verse 4:
Zech 5:4. I will make it go forth,” declares the Lord of hosts, “and it will enter the house of the thief and the house of the one who swears falsely by My name; and it will spend the night within that house and consume it with its timber and stones.”
Neither the thalamus nor the cerebral cortex has the necessary timing mechanisms to implement learning and pruning on their own. Zechariah's text suggests that the testing mechanisms reside elsewhere in the brain. The most likely place for them is the hippocampus which is known to generate all sorts of precisely timed spike trains.

Conclusion

I have been saying for years that true AI will arrive on the world scene suddenly and that it would come from an unexpected place, the one place that neither atheists nor believers would suspect. We are not there yet but the time is drawing close. Hang in there.

See Also:

Two Simple Rules Govern Goal-Oriented Motor Learning in the Brain. How Do I Know This? Part I
Contrary to Claims in the Scientific Literature, the Cerebellum Cannot Generate Speech. How Do I Know This?
Short-term Attention Span Lasts 12.6 s and it Takes 35 ms to Switch from one Subject to Another. How do I Know This?
200 Million Horsemen and the Corpus Callosum

Saturday, June 17, 2017

Relativity Implicitly Assumes Instant Communication at a Distance While Explicitly Forbidding It. Not Even Wrong

Scientists Must be Made Accountable

I made this argument elsewhere but I thought that it was so damaging to mainstream physics and so important to the integrity of science that it deserved its own post. We are being taken to the cleaners by a well paid group of people whose job it is to come up with the best science that money can buy. Instead, they feed us lies after lies and they spend billions and billions of our money in the process. When they are caught in an outrageous lie, they create even more elaborate and expensive lies to cover it up. The billion-dollar LIGO project scam is a case in point. We must demand accountability from our scientists.

Relativist Pseudoscience

Relativity is a local theory. That is to say, it forbids action at a distance. While Newtonian gravity assumes that gravity acts instantaneously at a distance, General Relativists insist that gravity is propagated at the speed of light. The problem is that a finite speed of gravity would result in unstable orbits. It is a big problem indeed. Relativists claim that GR addresses our legitimate concern about the finite speed of gravity. They then go through an amazing exercise in pseudoscience, bad logic and superstition to explain how GR gets around the problem.

They argue that, by some unknown magic, the sun communicates information regarding its velocity relative to the earth and all other bodies in the universe. This information propagates at the speed of light. This way, the other bodies can somehow (more magic) read the information and more or less guess where the sun is even though they receive the information some time after it was sent. Earth receives the information about 8 minutes after emission. Of course, relativists decline to explain how this information is encoded, transmitted and how the other bodies detect it. They just write some equations and voila! That's the magic part. This part of the theory is strangely immune to falsification. Not one experiment is offered to determine the veracity of the hypothesis. They are essentially telling us with a straight face that they somehow know that gravity acts as if it were instantaneous (the Newtonian assumption) even though they know it isn't. This cannot be tested because the results of GR are the same as the Newtonian results. It is pure pseudoscience. But it gets worse, much worse..

Not Even Wrong

It is a laughably self-contradicting argument simply because there is no way that the sun can "know" about its velocity relative to any other body so as to transmit it to any of them. The problem has to do with the word ‘relative’. It is a problem with all observer-centric, relativity-based, local theories because the word ‘relative’ implies instantaneous knowledge between distant bodies even though such knowledge is forbidden by the local nature of the theory: nothing can move faster than the speed of light. So general relativists are breaking their own rule. On the one hand, they are saying that information must travel at or below the speed of light and this is why changes in gravity must travel at the speed of light. On the other hand, they are using instantaneous information to determine the relative velocity between distant bodies. This is not even wrong. And yet, this stinking pile of bullshit is what the ongoing LIGO project is based on. The public is being forced to pay for a scam but the scammers have found a way to remain immune to public scrutiny. This must stop. Someone needs to blow a loud whistle in order to unmask this bullshit.

Malevolent Alien Takeover?

The relativist argument for the finite speed of gravity is so painfully contrived and so wrong on the face of it that I am tempted to conclude that the physics community has been taken over by a malevolent alien entity hellbent on making humans look and act stupid. We fund scientific research with our money. It is ours. We own it. It is time to kick out the charlatans and bullshitters that have taken control of it.

See Also:

Why Einstein's Physics Is Crap
Why Steven Carlip Is Mistaken about the Speed of Gravity or Why LIGO Is Still a Scam
Why LIGO Is a Scam

Repost: Why LIGO Is a Scam

[Note: LIGO scammers and relativist bullshitters didn't like this article. So here it is again.] 

Abstract

In this article, I argue that the billion-dollar LIGO project that recently claimed to have detected gravitational waves from the collision of two black holes located more than a billion light years from earth is nothing but a scam to defraud the public. I argue that gravitational waves cannot exist because they are based on the false assumption that changes in gravity propagate at the speed of light. I further argue that the spacetime model is wrong because it is a block universe in which nothing happens and that gravity is a nonlocal or instantaneous phenomenon related to the law of the conservation of energy.

Stable Planetary Orbits or Newton Was Right

In spite of the incessant propaganda over the last century from the general relativity camp, gravity is an instantaneous or nonlocal phenomenon, just as Isaac Newton assumed. If changes in gravity traveled at the speed of light, as relativists claim, Newtonian gravity equations would not work at all and all planetary orbits would become unstable. There would be no planetary systems orbiting stars and there would be no galaxies. The reason is that it would take more than eight minutes for changes (caused by its motion around the Milky Way galaxy) in the sun's gravity to reach the earth and even longer for the more distant planets. So the earth's orbit around the sun would depend on where the sun was eight minutes ago, the time it takes changes in the gravitational field to reach the earth, and not on where it is now. This is not observed. As it is, Newtonian gravity is extremely accurate in predicting the orbits and positions of the planets. Minor effects that Newton could not have known about, such as clock slowing, are negligible. This is a fact. (see LaPlace calculation of the speed of gravity.)

Conservation of Symmetry

There is another reason, equally damning, that gravity must be instantaneous. It has to do with symmetry. Symmetry is an inherent part of the way the universe works. The conservation of symmetry is as much a law of nature as the conservation of momentum or energy. Geometry would not work without it. Conservation laws are nonlocal, meaning that they act over any distance, as if distance did not exist.

In spite of all the relativist claims regarding spacetime curvature (more on this later), gravity is undeniably caused by an energy deficit due to local violations in the conservation of energy. The deficit occurs when many particles (both massive and massless) exist at a particular location.

I have a hypothesis as to why the deficit happens but suffice it to say, for now, that it is the reason that clocks slow down in the presence of gravity. Regardless of the cause of the deficit, nature tries to eliminate it by moving energy, in the form of both massive and massless particles, toward the location of the deficit. Of course, it can never eliminate it because adding more matter results in even more violations.

The law of symmetry dictates that the shape of the gravitational field must be symmetrical around the source of the deficit, i.e., as perfectly spherical as possible. By analogy, the shape of the electric field around an electron must also be symmetrical. Otherwise, there would be a violation of symmetry. But if changes in the gravitational field propagated at c, as the physics community claims, it would create a non-symmetrical field around the source as it moves. This would be in violation of the conservation of symmetry, which is not allowed. Hence physicists are either wrong or lying about gravity.

Einstein's Block Universe in which Nothing Happens

Relativists claim that gravity is the curvature of spacetime caused by massive bodies. But is this true? The surprising and inconvenient fact is that nothing can move in spacetime because a time dimension, as I explained in the previous post, makes motion impossible. This alone falsifies the spacetime model. In Conjectures and Refutations (pdf), Karl Popper called spacetime, Einstein's block universe in which nothing happens. He even compared Einstein to Parmenides of Elea who, along with his more famous student, Zeno, maintained that nothing changes. Not even wrong. Here's a partial quote (emphasis added):
At the same time I realized that such myths may be developed, and become testable; that historically speaking all — or very nearly all — scientific theories originate from myths, and that a myth may contain important anticipations of scientific theories. Examples are Empedocles' theory of evolution by trial and error, or Parmenides' myth of the unchanging block universe in which nothing ever happens and which, if we add another dimension, becomes Einstein's block universe (in which, too, nothing ever happens, since everything is, four-dimensionally speaking, determined and laid down from the beginning).
Einstein's block universe is a thorn on the side of relativists. How many times have we read about the magic properties of spacetime and how bodies travel along their geodesics in spacetime? How many times have we heard how matter curves spacetime and how the curvature of spacetime affects the motion of bodies? Only to find out that it was all a bunch of lies. Many physicists know about these things but they rarely mention them because it makes them look stupid. Besides, why rock the boat that you are riding in?

LIGO Fraud

If gravity is instantaneous (there can be no doubt about it, in my view), then LIGO must be a scam, a fraud perpetrated on an unsuspecting public to the tune of billions of dollars. Of course, the public who pays the salaries of LIGO physicists and funds their expensive projects has no way to verify their claims. But sooner or later, the chickens will come home to roost. Wait for it.

Addendum (6/2/16):

Relativity Implicitly Assumes Instant Communication while Explicitly Forbidding it

Relativists will, of course, reply with an argument that I have heard many times before. They will claim that I do not understand general relativity theory and that GR addresses my concern about the finite speed of gravity. They will argue that, by some unknown magic, the sun communicates information regarding its velocity relative to the earth and all other bodies in the universe. This way, the other bodies can somehow (more magic) read the information and more or less guess where the sun is even though they receive the information some time after it was sent. Of course, they decline to explain how this information is encoded, transmitted and how the other bodies detect it. That's the magic part. This part of the theory is somehow immune to falsification. Not very scientific, if you ask me. But it gets worse, much worse.

It is a laughably self-contradicting argument simply because there is no way that the sun can "know" about its velocity relative to any other body so as to transmit it to any of them. The problem has to do with the word ‘relative’. It is a problem with all observer-centric, relativity-based, local theories because the word ‘relative’ implies instantaneous knowledge between distant bodies even though such knowledge is forbidden by the local nature of the theory: nothing can move faster than the speed of light. So general relativists are breaking their own rule. On the one hand, they are saying that information must travel at or below the speed of light and this is why changes in gravity must travel at the speed of light. On the other hand, they are using instantaneous information to determine the relative velocity between distant bodies. This is not even wrong.

The argument is so stupid and so painfully contrived that I declined to address it when I first wrote the article. But I have since seen it repeated elsewhere on the web and I could not let it go without a refutation. This is the kind of crap that the public is forced to support with their hard earned money.

Steven Carlip's Aberration and the Speed of Gravity

Relativity proponent Steven Carlip wrote a paper (Aberration and the Speed of Gravity) in 1999 that supposedly laid the problem to rest. In the paper's abstract he writes (emphasis added):

"By evaluating the gravitational effect of an accelerating mass, I show that aberration in general relativity is almost exactly canceled by velocity-dependent interactions, permitting cg=c."

Ironically, Carlip's use of the phrase "velocity-dependent interactions" in the abstract immediately refutes his argument that information about the sun's velocity relative to the earth or any other body can be determined in the sun's frame of reference and communicated to other bodies. This would have to assume the existence of either absolute motion/position or instantaneous communication between distant bodies, both of which the theory forbids. The fact that such crackpottery can make it past peer review shows that relativity physics is not about science. It is strictly about politics. Einstein's physics is now a full-fledged religion and political movement.

New: Why Steven Carlip Is Mistaken about the Speed of Gravity or Why LIGO Is Still a Scam

Addendum (6/4/16):

Infinite Regress and the Graviton

Let us assume for the sake of argument that the relativist hypothesis is correct. In order to communicate information about its relative velocity to other bodies, a massive object would have to encode it in a particle which would then travel at the speed of light out into space. Physicists call this particle, the graviton. The problem with the use of a mediating particle as the carrier of the gravitational force is that gravity, unlike the other forces, affects everything the same way. This includes the gravitons themselves. This immediately introduces an infinite self-referential regress that throws a giant monkey wrench into the works. It is an insurmountable problem. But don't tell quantum gravity physicists about it. The graviton idea is one of their most beloved pet theories.

Parlor Tricks

But that is not all. Since physicists cannot account for the self-energy of the graviton, they have to use one of their favorite parlor tricks to explain away the obvious violation of the conservation of energy: physics via labeling. Just call the graviton "virtual" et voila! Problem solved. It is embarrassing, to say the least.

The All-Seeing Nonlocal Universe

The only alternative is that there is no graviton. We are now back to Newtonian physics which makes no assumptions about the mechanism of gravity. If so, how can the gravitational force be communicated to other bodies? The answer is that there is no communication. Gravity is an instantaneous or nonlocal phenomenon. Everything "feels" or "sees" the gravity of everything else instantly. Distance is a perceptual illusion. The universe is one and all-seeing. Or, to borrow a Biblical metaphor, everything is "full of eyes".

See Also

Aberration and the Speed of Gravity (Carlip)
Does Gravity Travel at the Speed of Light? (Carlip)
Why Steven Carlip Is Mistaken about the Speed of Gravity or Why LIGO Is Still a Scam
Why Space (Distance) Is an Illusion
How to Falsify Einstein's Physics, For Dummies
How Einstein Shot Physics in the Foot
Nasty Little Truth About Spacetime Physics
Why Einstein's Physics Is Crap
Physicists Don't Know Shit
Nothing Can Move in Spacetime
Physics: The Problem with Motion
Why Gravitational Waves Are Nonsense
Physics: The Surprisingly Simple Reason that the Speed of Light Is the Fastest Possible Speed and that Particle Decay Is Probabilistic

Thursday, June 15, 2017

There Is Only One Speed in the Universe, the Speed of Light. Nothing Can Move Faster or Slower

Quantum Jumps at the Speed of Light

The truth about the speed of light will surprise everybody, physicists and laymen alike. There is actually only one speed in the universe and that is the speed of light. Nothing can move faster or slower, period. A particle moves by making quantum jumps at the speed of light interspersed with rest periods. The duration of a rest period is equal to that of a jump. If a particle appears to move at half the speed of light, its motion actually consists of an equal number of jumps and rest periods. At the speed of light, it is all jumps and no rest periods. At ordinary speeds, a moving particle is at rest almost all the time with just a few jumps sprinkled in.

Contrary to the Claims of Relativists, There Is No Time Dimension

Why is there only one speed in the universe? Again, the actual reason will surprise. In spite of all the indoctrination and the incessant relativist propaganda we have been subjected to in the last one hundred years or so, there is no such thing as a time dimension. A time dimension would make motion impossible. Why? The short answer is that moving in time is self-referential. The slightly longer answer is that a change in time implies a velocity in time which would have to be given as v = dt/dt = 1, which is nonsense. This is why nothing can move in Einstein's spacetime and why spacetime is a block universe in which nothing happens. All that time travel through wormholes stuff is crackpottery, of course. But please do not mention this to Star Trek fanatics.

Since there is no time dimension, nature cannot calculate durations. This means that all jump durations are equal to a fundamental duration, which is the interval it takes a particle to move a fundamental distance, a very minute length that some believe is the Planck length. The interval is Planck time.

Nontemporality Is Just the Tip of the Iceberg of Crackpottery in Modern Physics

The non-existence of a time dimension explains other phenomena as well, such as why particle decay is probabilistic. But the crackpottery of spacetime goes much further: there is no space either. There exist only particles, their properties and their interactions. Everything else is either abstract or BS. Physics is a lot more interesting than any of us suspected.

See Also

Why Steven Carlip Is Mistaken about the Speed of Gravity or Why LIGO Is Still a Scam
Why LIGO Is a Scam

Sunday, June 11, 2017

Two Simple Rules Govern Goal-Oriented Motor Learning in the Brain. How Do I Know This? Part III

Abstract

In Part II, I revealed that the two rules of goal-oriented motor learning are, first, to eliminate connections with conflicting motor commands, and second, to eliminate connections that pursue the wrong goals. Below I explain what a goal is and how to go about eliminating bad motor connections.

What Is a Goal?

There are two types of goals, simple goals and complex goals. A simple goal is the hoped-for occurrence of a single event such as the detection of a learned pattern. A complex goal consists of any number of elementary goals, either a sequence of pattern detections or multiple sequences of pattern detections. The brain uses two types of hierarchies, one to manage pattern detections and the other for sequence detections. Given that a pattern is a group of concurrent sensory signals, it pays to think of a pattern detector as a complex or high-level sensor.

Based on my research, I determined that a basic goal in the brain's sequence hierarchy is the hoped-for occurrence of a short sequence of pattern detections. I discovered from reading the book of Zechariah that every sequence detector in memory is a unit of seven nodes and each sequence can detect multiple speeds. In other words, each sequence has multiple goals. I will not go into the details in this article but this is implemented in the cortical columns of the neocortex. So, in order to achieve a goal, a sequence detector in memory must generate a motor command that results in the detection of the hoped-for event and the emission of a recognition spike or signal.

"Walking" and "feet" are used repeatedly in both Revelation and Zechariah to symbolize motor output. "Eye" is the metaphor for a pattern detector. I first deduced that the church of Thyatira symbolized the motor system of the brain because it is the fourth, or middle church, of the seven churches. Why is this significant? It is because, in the first message to the seven churches, we read the following (italics mine):
Rev 2:2. Unto the angel of the church of Ephesus write; These things saith he that holdeth the seven stars in his right hand, who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks;
The original Greek word translated "midst" in the King James version literally means "center" or "middle". The "seven golden candlesticks", we are told elsewhere, are the seven churches. The opening message to the church of Thyatira (Revelation 2) is all about "eyes" and "feet":
Rev 2:18. And unto the angel of the church in Thyatira write; These things saith the Son of God, who hath his eyes like unto a flame of fire, and his feet are like fine brass;
The sensorimotor connection is undeniable. Immediately, we see a direct link between pattern detection (eyes) and motor output (feet). Both are refined in fire, meaning that they have been tried and tested during the learning process. In chapter 3 of Zechariah we read the following:
Zech 3:7. “Thus says the Lord of hosts, ‘If you will walk in My ways and if you will perform My service, then you will also govern My house and also have charge of My courts, and I will grant you free access among these who are standing here.
Here Yahweh is speaking to Joshua the high priest. Joshua symbolizes a sensorimotor unit. He is told to walk (motor output) in the ways of Yahweh (no fornication/adultery) and to perform Yahweh's service (no idolatry) in the temple. Joshua's duty (service or goal) is to act so as to detect a specific pattern. The main lesson of this verse is that pattern detectors are their own goals. The brain achieves its goals by sending specific motor commands that result in the detection of specific patterns.

How to Get Rid of Bad Motor Connections

It is one thing to detect a motor error but it is another to correct it. If a motor signal does not result in the hope-for detection, should its connection be immediately disconnected? Even more problematic, if a motor conflict is detected, how do we know which connection is the culprit? Is it the connection that just fired or is it the one that fired right before it? It could also be a temporary error. Here is what Revelation says about it:
Rev 2:21. And I gave her space to repent of her fornication; and she repented not.
Rev 2:22. Behold, I will cast her into a bed, and them that commit adultery with her into great tribulation, except they repent of their deeds.
Rev 2:23. And I will kill her children with death; and all the churches shall know that I am he which searcheth the reins and hearts: and I will give unto every one of you according to your works.
Verse 21 tells us that Jezebel is given time to repent of her fornication. Why is Jezebel given time to repent of her fornication? My take on it is that there is no way to tell right away who the real culprit is. The strange thing is that, not only is Jezebel not given time to repent of her idolatry, but the message to Thyatira says nothing about how to eliminate idolatrous connections. Why is that? The answer, as we shall see below, is that the idolaters are automatically destroyed with the fornicators.

If the conflicts continue, Jezebel is cast onto a bed of sickness, meaning that she must stop all new connection activities while the problem is being solved. Those that commit adultery with her are also severely punished. This is a way of saying that motor connections have strengths that will be weakened if the conflicts do not go away. But how do connections acquire their strength? The answer is found in verse 23: "and I will give unto every one of you according to your works." In other words, a motor connection is rewarded every time its motor signal is successful in achieving its expected goal.

Now comes the clincher that solves the entire puzzle. Verse 23 declares: "And I will kill her children with death." Why punish the children and not the adults? This is yet another strange thing for us to digest but keep in mind that this is a metaphorical text. It turns out that conflicting connections are invariably among the youngest ones, i.e., the ones that have not yet gained strength according to their works. Since idolaters are rarely or never rewarded, they are the first to be eliminated. So, weakening all the connections when conflicting signals are detected is sufficient to get rid of both fornicators and idolaters in one fell swoop.

Most muscles in the body can receive commands from thousands of sources originating from many areas of the cerebral cortex. Motor learning alone would not be enough to keep them from conflicting with one another. Luckily, the brain has another way to restrict access to its actuators. Zechariah calls it the branch. Only a relatively small branch of the sequence hierarchy is awake at any one time. The branch represents whatever the brain is paying attention to. Motor commands can only be sent from the currently awakened branch.

Conclusion

The book of Zechariah complements the book of Revelation and vice versa. Both are treasure troves of information about the organization of the brain. There is so much knowledge about the brain, consciousness and even fundamental physics packed into these two visions, it would take several books on the topics covered to do it full justice. Still, the whole thing will seem almost too simple. Contrary to the expectations of the mainstream AI community, no complex math or convoluted engineering is required. It turns out that the problem of intelligence is not one of complexity but one of searching for a needle in a haystack. It is the kind of search that could take us hundreds if not thousands of years to conduct. Fortunately for the world, we won't have to.

In this article, I attempted to show that the secret of sensorimotor learning is here and available to anyone who is willing to hear the message. And it is not just motor learning. The full secret of true artificial intelligence is within our grasps if we heed the message. Indeed, as the book says, "He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches."

See Also:

Contrary to Claims in the Scientific Literature, the Cerebellum Cannot Generate Speech. How Do I Know This?
Short-term Attention Span Lasts 12.6 s and it Takes 35 ms to Switch from one Subject to Another. How do I Know This?
200 Million Horsemen and the Corpus Callosum

Friday, June 9, 2017

Two Simple Rules Govern Goal-Oriented Motor Learning in the Brain. How Do I Know This? Part II

Abstract

In Part I of this three-part article, I identified the message to the Church of Thyatira in the Book of Revelation as a metaphorical description of the brain's motor control and motivation system. I explained that Revelation uses the historical and Biblical figure, Jezebel, to symbolize the connection making mechanism of the motor learning system of the brain. Below, I reveal the two rules used by the brain to test the connections. One is symbolized by fornication and the other by eating things sacrificed unto idols.

Fornication: Motor Conflict

In Mosaic law, fornication, aka adultery, means having relations with a woman who is already married to someone else. In Revelation's symbolic language, it signifies a motor conflict. A motor conflict is a contradictory or inconsistent motor command signal. It occurs when an actuator (e.g., a muscle) receives a motor command signal to do something that it is already doing. It follows that there are two kinds of motor conflicts as follows:
  1. A motor conflict occurs if an already stopped actuator receives a signal to stop.
  2. A motor conflict occurs if an already started actuator receives a signal to start.
This almost seems trivial but do not be fooled. Its power is in its simplicity. Without a quick rule to eliminate motor conflicts, it would be impossible for the brain to learn smooth and coordinated motor behavior.

Eating Meat Sacrificed Unto Idols: Pursuing the Wrong Goal

Idolatry is the act of serving gods other than Yahweh. In ancient Israel, the duties of the temple priests included eating portions of the meat from the animals sacrificed to Yahweh. When Jezebel married King Ahab of Israel and became queen, she convinced the temple priests to engage in ritual fornication and to eat meat sacrificed to the ancient Sumerian god Baal and the goddess Asherah. In the symbology of the book of Revelation, serving a foreign god is a metaphor for pursuing the wrong goal.

Coming Next

Goal-oriented behavior would obviously be impossible without goals. In other words, goals must exist in memory before the brain can seek them. But what is a goal? And how does the motor system determine whether or not a motor command achieved its goal? The answers to these important questions can be found in chapter 3 of the Book of Zechariah. This will be the topic of Part III of this article.

See Also:

Contrary to Claims in the Scientific Literature, the Cerebellum Cannot Generate Speech. How Do I Know This?
Short-term Attention Span Lasts 12.6 s and it Takes 35 ms to Switch from one Subject to Another. How do I Know This?
200 Million Horsemen and the Corpus Callosum

Thursday, June 8, 2017

Two Simple Rules Govern Goal-Oriented Motor Learning in the Brain. How Do I Know This? Part I

Abstract

Learning in the brain is a trial and error process. The trial part consists of making random synaptic connections and the error part consists of testing the connections. If a connection breaks a preset rule, it is severed and the process continues. In this article, I argue that the brain uses two simple rules to test the connections between the neocortex and the motor system. How do I know this? I do, not because I learned it from the scientific literature, but because I decoded a 2000 year-old occult book known as the Book of Revelation. Many years ago, I discovered that the books of Zechariah and Revelation use clever metaphors to describe the organization and operation of the human brain and consciousness.

Motor Learning in the Brain

A motor command is a signal that controls a motor action such as the contraction or relaxation of a muscle. The cerebral cortex generates two types of motor commands, one to start an action that has not yet been started and another to stop a previously started action. This is implemented in the brain's basal ganglia (the voluntary motor control system) via the use of excitatory and inhibitory connections. Actions are performed by actuators and are maintained by tonic motor neurons that continually fire when not inhibited. A muscle actuator, for example, tenses up if its motor neuron begins firing and relaxes if the neuron stops firing. The cerebral cortex makes millions of synaptic connections with the motor system. Each connection can either start an action or terminate it when it receives a signal. The connections are made during motor learning using a trial and error process.

The million dollar question is, how does the brain tell the difference between a good and a bad connection? Neurobiologists do not know the answer to this question but I do. How is that possible? I know, not because I am some kind of genius, but because I found the answer in chapter 2 of the Book of Revelation. Based on my research, I concluded that the message to the church in Thyatira, beginning at verse 18, is a metaphorical description of the motor and motivational system of the brain.

The Secret of Motor Learning: Hiding in Plain Sight

The holy grail of robotics is goal-oriented behavior. The problem is, nobody knows how to do it. But what if the secret of motor learning was already out? What if all one had to do to unlock the secret was to decipher a little verse from a two thousand-year old occult book written in Greek by a Christian Jew, a man named John?
Rev 2:20. Notwithstanding I have a few things against thee, because thou sufferest that woman Jezebel, which calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce my servants to commit fornication, and to eat things sacrificed unto idols.
The book of Revelation uses known historical and religious figures, places and events to symbolize various aspects of the functional organization of the brain. Jezebel is an infamous character in the Old Testament known for her adultery and idolatry. According to the Book of Kings, she was a queen of Israel in the 9th century BC, the wife of king Ahab. In the message to the church in Thyatira, Jezebel is used metaphorically to represent the trial part of the trial and error motor learning process. In other words, she symbolizes the connection making mechanism of the brain's motor system.

Jezebel calls herself a prophetess without actually being one, meaning that the connections are made randomly without knowing the consequences. Most of the connections lead to bad behavior symbolized by fornication and eating things sacrificed unto idols.

Coming Next

In Part II, I will decode the true meaning of these powerful metaphors to unveil the secret of motor learning, aka the holy grail of robotics.

See Also:

Contrary to Claims in the Scientific Literature, the Cerebellum Cannot Generate Speech. How Do I Know This?
Short-term Attention Span Lasts 12.6 s and it Takes 35 ms to Switch from one Subject to Another. How do I Know This?
200 Million Horsemen and the Corpus Callosum