Thursday, June 30, 2016

The Case Against Superintelligence

Limited Attention Span

The superintelligent machine is a flawed concept, in my opinion. It is based on the assumption that the IQ of a single intelligent system can increase indefinitely. There are two problems with it. First, an intelligent system can only focus on one thing at a time. This imposes a severe limitation on the learning capability of the system. While it is possible to increase the learning speed of a machine by feeding it high speed data such as videos, learning to interact with the real world will still have to be done in real time.

The Tree of Knowledge

Second, knowledge is necessarily organized hierarchically in memory. This means that there are many branches in the tree of knowledge. This is the only way to store a huge amount of information in a limited space and to organize it in a way that makes it readily accessible within a context. This is important because it allows the system to infer analogies, an essential characteristic of intelligence. In other words, items that share a branch belong to the same category and the activation of a low level item brings up all the other related items (one thought brings up other thoughts). It is up to the attention mechanism to scan these family relations and pick one to focus on.

The Superintelligent Society

The problem is that a superintelligence would have vast numbers of awakened relations (branches) to pick from. It would take an inordinate length of time to do so. This is why it is best to specialize in an area of knowledge and rely on the expertise of others. This is what humans do. In a sense, humanity is already a superintelligent system consisting of millions of interacting individuals specialising in various areas of knowledge. The system, as a whole, is much more intelligent than any individual can ever be. The internet has accelerated communication between individuals making our global superintelligence even more efficient.

So I don't see a future dominated by a single or a few superintelligent machines but one in which many highly specialized artificial intelligences form a superintelligent society.

Saturday, June 18, 2016

Why Steven Carlip Is Mistaken about the Speed of Gravity or Why LIGO Is Still a Scam

Abstract

This is a continuation of my previous post, Why LIGO Is a Scam. Steven Carlip is a quantum gravity physicist and a proponent of Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR). He is the author of a famous 1999 paper that purportedly explains how GR gets around the problem of the finite speed of gravity. In this article, I argue that Carlip's explanation is flawed because the GR model is self-contradictory. I further argue that Carlip is equally wrong about the speed of the electric field and that, as a result of his wrong assumptions, he failed to notice some extraordinary physics. I will base my argument on this explanation by Carlip directed at the layperson: Does Gravity Travel at the Speed of Light?

Carlip Is Wrong About the Symmetry of the Gravitational Field

To his credit, Carlip acknowledges that the speed of gravity has never been measured because, according to him, "such an experiment is beyond current technological capabilities." It is a concession that the hypothesis that he defends is not supported by observation. That clearly places the relativist hypothesis of the speed of gravity in the realm of pseudoscience. But I'll explain in a minute why it is not true that the experiment is beyond current technological capabilities. Carlip then succinctly and precisely describes the problem:
In the simple newtonian model, gravity propagates instantaneously: the force exerted by a massive object points directly toward that object's present position. For example, even though the Sun is 500 light seconds from the Earth, newtonian gravity describes a force on Earth directed towards the Sun's position "now," not its position 500 seconds ago. Putting a "light travel delay" (technically called "retardation") into newtonian gravity would make orbits unstable, leading to predictions that clearly contradict Solar System observations.
I should first point out that the Newtonian model says nothing about the "propagation" of gravity. There is no propagation because it assumes that gravity is instantaneous. This being said, even though he does not realize it, Carlip's own understanding of Newtonian physics proves that changes in gravity are felt instantly everywhere. This is because Newton made another equally crucial assumption. He assumed that gravity is perfectly symmetrical or spherical around a homogeneous gravitational source. This is given by the inverse square law and this is what is observed. Ironically, GR makes the same assumption (inverse square law) even though a finite speed of gravity would break the assumed symmetry if the gravitational source is moving. The GR model is thus self-contradictory.

Think about it. This is not complicated logic for propellerheads. If gravity propagated at the speed of light, the gravitational field would be flattened in front of the moving body and elongated in the rear. This is not observed. So the fact that the gravitational field is consistent with a symmetrical expectation given by the inverse square law and with an assumption of nonlocality (i.e., instantaneous action at a distance), it is logical to conclude that the "speed of gravity" has in fact already been measured and that there is no propagation to speak of. Carlip stumbles right out of the gate but he does not notice.

Carlip Is Wrong About Relative Motion

The above argument fully falsifies Carlip's position and there is really no need to go further. But Carlip continues unphased. He writes (emphasis added):
In general relativity, on the other hand, gravity propagates at the speed of light; that is, the motion of a massive object creates a distortion in the curvature of spacetime that moves outward at light speed. This might seem to contradict the Solar System observations described above, but remember that general relativity is conceptually very different from newtonian gravity, so a direct comparison is not so simple. Strictly speaking, gravity is not a "force" in general relativity, and a description in terms of speed and direction can be tricky. For weak fields, though, one can describe the theory in a sort of newtonian language. In that case, one finds that the "force" in GR is not quite central—it does not point directly towards the source of the gravitational field—and that it depends on velocity as well as position. The net result is that the effect of propagation delay is almost exactly cancelled, and general relativity very nearly reproduces the newtonian result.
Carlip's key argument here is in the last two sentences in the above paragraph. It has to do with velocity and position. He is arguing that, by some unexplained magic, information about the velocity and position of a massive body, such as the sun or a planet is transmitted to other bodies. This way a receiving body can, by some other unexplained magic, extrapolate the actual position of the emitting body and react accordingly.

The problem, as I explained in my previous post, is that GR only allows relative position and motion. A body cannot transmit information about its position and motion because it has no way of knowing what they are according to the theory. Since absolute motion and position are forbidden, the body would have to know its instantaneous velocity relative to every other body in the universe. This would require instant communication between it and the other bodies. This, too, is forbidden by the theory. Carlip is stuck between a rock and a hard place. His argument is now fully lodged in the crackpottery sphere.

Carlip Is Wrong About the Speed of the Electric Field

It gets better. Carlip goes on to use an analogy that reveals revolutionary new physics (assuming, of course, that one has an open mind and is not in the habit of kissing ass) but, unfortunately for Carlip and the rest of the world, the whole thing flies right past him unaware. He writes (emphasis added):
This cancellation may seem less strange if one notes that a similar effect occurs in electromagnetism. If a charged particle is moving at a constant velocity, it exerts a force that points toward its present position, not its retarded position, even though electromagnetic interactions certainly move at the speed of light. Here, as in general relativity, subtleties in the nature of the interaction "conspire" to disguise the effect of propagation delay. It should be emphasized that in both electromagnetism and general relativity, this effect is not put in ad hoc but comes out of the equations. Also, the cancellation is nearly exact only for constant velocities. If a charged particle or a gravitating mass suddenly accelerates, the change in the electric or gravitational field propagates outward at the speed of light.
Of course, Carlip's argument about the speed of the electric field fails for the same reasons that his argument about the speed of gravity fails. But it is amazing how a false assumption can color one's judgement. Carlip (and the entire mainstream physics community) is so bent on proving that information can only travel at the speed of light (Einstein's local universe), he fails to realize that his chosen example actually proves the opposite of the position he is defending. It reveals something about the electrostatic field that has been right under their noses for over a century. They cannot see it because they got their Einstein blinders on.

What Carlip does not realize is that his argument actually shows that the electric field is instantaneous, just like gravity. His claim that "electromagnetic interactions" move at the speed of light is only partially true. Only magnetic radiation moves at the speed of light. Changes in the electric field of a charged particle are obviously felt instantaneously everywhere. If it were not so, the electric field of a moving electron would be lopsided resulting in a lopsided or non-symmetrical universe. A purely symmetrical field is what is observed and this is why the electric field of a moving charged particle moves precisely with the particle. There is no delay due to propagation. Carlip's interpretation is bogus. (Christian and Jewish readers only: see special note at the end for a surprising take on this.)

Carlip Is Wrong About Binary Pulsars

Carlip then brings binary pulsars to the rescue, a sign of a weak argument, if you ask me. He writes:
While current observations do not yet provide a direct model-independent measurement of the speed of gravity, a test within the framework of general relativity can be made by observing the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16. The orbit of this binary system is gradually decaying, and this behavior is attributed to the loss of energy due to escaping gravitational radiation. But in any field theory, radiation is intimately related to the finite velocity of field propagation, and the orbital changes due to gravitational radiation can equivalently be viewed as damping caused by the finite propagation speed. (In the discussion above, this damping represents a failure of the "retardation" and "noncentral, velocity-dependent" effects to completely cancel.)
At this point, is anybody stupid enough to take anything that comes out of Steven Carlip's mouth or anybody else in the physics community at face value? Remember that these are people who see nothing wrong with using the word "virtual" like a magic incantation to instantly poof away violations in the conservation of energy that break their model. Notice how Carlip talks about being "within the framework of general relativity." In other words, the theory is assumed to be correct a priori. So every observed phenomenon must be explained within the framework of the theory. This is not science, of course. It is religion.

So, if the orbit of a binary pulsar system is decaying, in their minds, it can only be because GR predicted it. Does GR explain what causes gravity? Of course not. But, in spite of this glaring ignorance, they are certain that the decaying orbit is only possible because gravity propagates at c. I can think of a simple and mundane reason that the orbit is decaying. It is more than likely because of friction caused by collisions with other matter (such as an atmosphere) present in the system. I simply cannot accept Carlip's explanation because it is so ridiculously wrong in ways that I have already mentioned.

LIGO is Still a Scam

As I wrote previously, since gravity is undeniably instantaneous and gravitational waves are based on the hypothesis that changes in gravity propagate at c, there can be no doubt that the LIGO project is a scam. Why do I say a scam and not just a mistake? First of all, the intensity of the propaganda effort expended on convincing the public of the importance of the research is unprecedented. The inconvenient truth is that LIGO has exactly zero benefits for the public at large. Zilch. Second, this is probably the first time that the scientific community has come out and made an announcement about a major scientific discovery without corroboration by independent researchers conducting independent experiments. Third, it is very easy to fake a discovery because the LIGO system is designed so that fake signals that are indistinguishable from expected signals can be injected into the system at the push of a button. Supposedly, this is so that the system and the physicists attending to the experiment can be tested. The fake signals are so convincing that the LIGO team once completely fell for it. A paper was written and ready for publication before the fakery was revealed at the last minute. How easy would it be to fake other signals, you ask? Very easy. New Scientist wrote an interesting article about this in February. Here's a quote:
The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) made history last week when it announced the first direct discovery of the ripples in space-time predicted by Albert Einstein 100 years ago. But the LIGO team is infamous for testing its system by inserting fake signals that are only revealed to be false at the last minute.
But even in the event that some signal was genuinely detected, it would not prove that changes in gravity travel at c. That would be circular reasoning. A proof (and even Carlip would agree) would require the simultaneous detection of an electromagnetic signal, such as gamma rays, emitted by the same source. So far, at least two gravitational wave signals have been "detected" but, strangely, none were accompanied by an EM signal. Strange indeed. It may be easy to fake gravitational waves but faking EM waves is a different ball game altogether. I predict that the whole thing will come back and bite the physics community in the ass and destroy any trust that the public had in the scientific enterprise.

The Physics Community Can Kiss My Ass

My detractors will undoubtedly ask, what makes you think you are smarter than the entire physics community? My answer is that I am not smarter at all. I just got more gonads than they do. I have said this before. Unlike most physicists, I am not an ass kisser and the physics community does not put food on my table. And even if they did, I would still tell them to kiss my ass. Besides, I am a rebel at heart. This world is so full of lies, I accept almost nothing from anybody at face value.

Physicists are wrong about gravity. They are wrong about time. They are wrong about space. They are wrong about motion. They are wrong about the Big Bang, black holes and wormholes. They are wrong about dark energy and dark matter. They are wrong about quantum superposition. They are wrong about so many things, it boggles the mind that they can maintain any kind of sanity or dignity. I have written about many of these things before. Click on the links below if you are interested.

See Also

Aberration and the Speed of Gravity (Carlip)
Relativity Implicitly Assumes Instant Communication at a Distance While Explicitly Forbidding It. Not Even Wrong
Does Gravity Travel at the Speed of Light? (Carlip)
Why LIGO Is a Scam
Why Space (Distance) Is an Illusion
There Is Only One Speed in the Universe, the Speed of Light. Nothing Can Move Faster or Slower
How to Falsify Einstein's Physics, For Dummies
How Einstein Shot Physics in the Foot
Nasty Little Truth About Spacetime Physics
Why Einstein's Physics Is Crap
Physicists Don't Know Shit
Nothing Can Move in Spacetime
Physics: The Problem with Motion
Why Gravitational Waves Are Nonsense
Physics: The Surprisingly Simple Reason that the Speed of Light Is the Fastest Possible Speed and that Particle Decay Is Probabilistic

Special Note. This is only for the benefit of Christian and Jewish readers. The electric field and the electron were described metaphorically by Ezekiel thousands of years ago. Ezekiel used the metaphor of a wheel within a wheel that moves in unison with four living creatures. The electron is represented by four creatures because it is a composite particle consisting of four sub-particles each having a quarter charge. Surprise! Physicists are aware of the quarter-charge composite nature of the electron but since it does not fit the Standard Model of particle physics according to which the electron is elementary, they have taken to calling the sub-electronic particles, "quasi-particles". Physics via labelling is an age-old, shameless practice in the physics community. More on this in a future post.